For various reasons GP surgeries are misinterpreting guidance from NHS England. This is discriminatory and potentially harmful.
(1) Registering a new patient is easier if the surgery can be sure the person is who they say they are. GP surgeries mostly have to register anyone within their catchement boundary who applies, but have discretion to register patients who live outside the boundaries. Both of these mean that GP surgeries like to ask people to supply ID documents. If they ask for ID they have to ask everyone for ID - not doing so is discriminatory.
Some surgeries have misinterpreted this as a requirement to check ID. They are wrong. Some groups of people will not be able to provide ID. This might include women fleeing domestic violence, or homeless people. Forcing patients to provide ID before registration means these groups will not be able to register. GP surgeries that force people to provide ID risk breaking the Equality Act 2010.
(2) Everybody in England can register for free GP care. But some people will have to pay for secondary care. GPs have to warn people that they may be charged for some treatment.
Some Surgeries have misinterpreted this. They think that they have to determine who is eligble for free NHS treatment, or that some people in England can't get free GP treatment. This is incorrect. Everyone in England can get free GP treatment. When a patient is referred by a GP for further treatment it is the responsibility of the recieving organisation to check eligibility for free care, not of the GP. The GP should only make decisions based on clinical reasons.
(3) Some surgeries are refusing to register children unless a full original birth certificate is provided. They will say this is to protect against child trafficking or kidnapping. They have misinterpreted the guidance. It is important that children are registered with a GP, even if they do not have a birth certificate. If a child tries to register and cannot provide ID or a birth certificate they should be registered and the safeguarding lead for the surgery should be told.
It's really important that one person has one NHS number and is on one record. We don't want one person to have multiple records, and we really don't want two people on one record. So when GPs register new patients it's really useful to them if they can have ID.
The government has lists of how to check people's ID. If you need to know "who someone is" you ask for one item from a list, and if you need to know "where someone lives" you ask for two items from a different list. So that explains why all the requirements are very similar - one piece of photo ID and two pieces of ID with an address on.
Most GP websites are provided by a small number of website designers.
How to register with a GP practice This NHS England website is clear and easy to understand. The leaflets are particularly good.
Primary Medical Care Policy and Guidance Manual. You need to read section 8, starting on page 141.
PCSE Registration Guide This is a complex document aimed at people working within GP surgeries.
PCSE Registration website This is the website of the PCSE, who handle (among other things) registering patients. It's useful to look at "How do I register a homeless patient?"
How to Register with a GP? This is a nice, clear, NHS England leaflet. It contains info about ID (it's not needed but makes things easier), and the need to register homeless patients
Homeless PatientsThe same leaflet but tailored for homeless people.
Asylum seekersThe same leaflet but tailored for asylum seekers.
An old BMA page about patient registration
CQC Guidance about looking after homeless patients